Water distribution systems in Nepal are mostly focused on the urban centers. The water distribution systems beyond these urban centers are managed by the local communities, private sectors, local water user groups, etc. The quality of the water supply is always the matter of questioning for safety due to lack of filtration system, no use of disinfection and no proper maintenance.
The conditions in the hilly and mountainous regions are even worse compared to the plain areas of Nepal with limited sources of water. Even though the source is found, it remains hard to make the pipeline distribution system, often becomes long and tedious task to accomplish. Hence the people have to collect water from the far sources and spend hours for the daily need of water. The tragedy behind water use in Nepal is that, the water collected from this much of hardship is also not safe for drinking purpose due to the pollution in the source or due to bad storage vessels. The fact sheet released by Water Partners International depicts that 88% of the whole diseases are the waterborne diseases. 4,900 children are dying every day due to diarrhea. According to Asian Development Bank (ADB) report sanitation-related diseases account for 72 per cent of total ailments and diarrhea continues to be one of the leading causes of childhood deaths in Nepal. Other common illnesses are dysentery, coughs and skin diseases.
Therefore an instant action for the safe drinking water supply is the must in the present context of Nepal. Among various techniques developed for the safe drinking water, the use of Chlorine solution (or sodium hypochlorite) - a chemical compound that destroys and inactivates micro-organisms and pathogens in water - is a powerful disinfectant widely used.
The general objective of the campaign is to provide the communities with safe drinking water and improved sanitation of the surrounding. The specific objectives of the campaign are :
To promote the safe supply of drinking water in schools to prevent children from water borne diseases.
To increase the school attendance and students enrollment.
To aware communities in safe drinking water and sanitation through school child.
ECCA has initiated the campaign by using chlorine solution – which is locally produced from concentrated common salt solution, through an electrolysis process. It is simple to use, robust and sustainable technology. The device requires only DC source or solar panel, a clean plastic container (not metallic), common salt and clear water.
The necessary quantity of active chlorine concentrate (sodium hypochlorite) for water treatment depends on the initial water quality. For an average water quality, 1 litre of concentrated salt solution can treat about 52,000 litres of water. Once treated water is used, health condition will improve; thereby enhancing the livelihood of the general populace.